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INVEGA: CLINICAL STUDIES
The acute efficacy of Invega (3 mg to 15 mg once daily) was established in three placebo-controlled and active-controlled (olanzapine), 6-week, fixed-dose trials in non-elderly adult subjects (mean age of 37) who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia. Studies were carried out in North America, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Asia. The doses studied among these three trials included 3 mg per day, 6 mg per day, 9 mg per day, 12 mg per day, and 15 mg per day. Dosing was in the morning without regard to meals.
Efficacy was evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), a validated multi-item inventory composed of five factors to evaluate positive symptoms, negative symptoms, disorganized thoughts, uncontrolled hostility/excitement, and anxiety/depression. Efficacy was also evaluated using the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale. The PSP is a validated clinician-rated scale that measures personal and social functioning in the domains of socially useful activities (e.g., work and study), personal and social relationships, self-care, and disturbing and aggressive behaviors.
In all 3 studies (n = 1665), Invega was superior to placebo on the PANSS at all doses. Mean effects at all doses were fairly similar, although the higher doses in all studies were numerically superior. Invega (Paliperidone) was also superior to placebo on the PSP in these trials.
An examination of population subgroups did not reveal any evidence of differential responsiveness on the basis of gender, age (there were few patients over 65), or geographic region. There were insufficient data to explore differential effects based on race.
In a longer-term trial, adult outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia who had clinically responded (defined as PANSS score . 70 or . 4 on pre-defined PANSS subscales, as well as having been on a stable fixed dose of Paliperidone (Invega) for the last two weeks of an 8-week run-in phase) were entered into a 6-week open-label stabilization phase where they received Invega (doses ranging from 3 mg to 15 mg once daily). After the stabilization phase, patients were randomized in a double-blind manner to either continue on Invega (Paliperidone) at their achieved stable dose, or to placebo, until they experienced a relapse of schizophrenia symptoms. Relapse was pre-defined as significant increase in PANSS (or pre-defined PANSS subscales), hospitalization, clinically significant suicidal or homicidal ideation, or deliberate injury to self or others. An interim analysis of the data showed a significantly longer time to relapse in patients treated with this drug compared to placebo, and the trial was stopped early because maintenance of efficacy was demonstrated.
The efficacy of Invega (Paliperidone) in adolescent subjects with schizophrenia was established in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 6-week study using a fixed-dose weight-based treatment group design over the dose range of 1.5 to 12 mg per day. The study was carried out in the US, Romania, India, Russia, and Ukraine, and involved subjects 12-17 years of age meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia, with diagnosis confirmation using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADSPL).
Eligible subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: a placebo group or Paliperidone (Invega) Low, Medium, or High dose groups. Doses were administered based on body weight to minimize the risk of exposing lower-weight adolescents to high doses of this medicine. Subjects weighing between 29 kg and less than 51 kg at the baseline visit were randomly assigned to receive placebo or 1.5 mg (Low dose), 3 mg (Medium dose), or 6 mg (High dose) of Invega (Paliperidone) daily, and subjects weighing at least 51 kg at the baseline visit were randomly assigned to receive placebo or 1.5 mg (Low dose), 6 mg (Medium dose), or 12 mg (High dose) of Invega daily. Dosing was in the morning without regard to meals.
Efficacy was evaluated using PANSS. Overall, this study demonstrated the efficacy of Paliperidone (Invega) in adolescents with schizophrenia in the dose range of 3 to 12 mg per day. Doses within this broad range were shown to be effective, however, there was no clear enhancement to efficacy at the higher doses, i.e., 6 mg for subjects weighing less than 51 kg and 12 mg for subjects weighing 51 kg or greater. Although paliperidone was adequately tolerated within the dose range of 3 to 12 mg per day, adverse events were dose related.
The acute efficacy of Invega (3 mg to 12 mg once daily) in the treatment of schizoaffective disorder was established in two placebo-controlled, 6-week trials in non-elderly adult subjects. Enrolled subjects 1) met DSM-IV criteria for schizoaffective disorder, as confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, 2) had a Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score of at least 60, and 3) had prominent mood symptoms as confirmed by a score of at least 16 on the Young Mania Rating Scale and/or Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The population included subjects with schizoaffective bipolar and depressive types. In one of these trials, efficacy was assessed in 211 subjects who received flexible doses of INVEGA (3-12 mg once daily). In the other study, efficacy was assessed in 203 subjects who were assigned to one of two dose levels of Invega (Paliperidone): 6 mg with the option to reduce to 3 mg (n = 105) or 12 mg with the option to reduce to 9 mg (n = 98) once daily. Both studies included subjects who received this medication either as monotherapy [no mood stabilizers and/or antidepressants (55%)] or as an adjunct to mood stabilizers and/or antidepressants (45%). The most commonly used mood stabilizers were valproate and lithium. The most commonly used antidepressants were SSRIs and SNRIs. Invega (Paliperidone) was dosed in the morning without regard to meals. Studies were carried out in the United States, Russia, Eastern Europe, and Asia.
Efficacy was evaluated using the PANSS, a validated multi-item inventory composed of five factors to evaluate positive symptoms, negative symptoms, disorganized thoughts, uncontrolled hostility/excitement, and anxiety/depression. As secondary outcomes, mood symptoms were evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-21) and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS).
The Invega group in the flexible-dose study (dosed between 3 and 12 mg per day, mean modal dose of 8.6 mg per day) and the higher dose group of Paliperidone (Invega) in the 2 dose-level study (12 mg per day with option to reduce to 9 mg per day) were each superior to placebo in the PANSS. Numerical improvements in mood symptoms were also observed, as measured by the HAM-D21 and YMRS. In the lower dose group of the 2 dose-level study (6 mg per day with option to reduce to 3 mg per day), Invega (Paliperidone) was not significantly different from placebo as measured by the PANSS.
Taking the results of both studies together, Paliperidone (Invega) improved the symptoms of schizoaffective disorder at endpoint relative to placebo when administered either as monotherapy or as an adjunct to mood stabilizers and/or antidepressants. An examination of population subgroups did not reveal any evidence of differential responsiveness on the basis of gender, age, or geographic region. There were insufficient data to explore differential effects based on race.
Paliperidone (Invega) related pharmaceutical drugs and medications
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